This dataset described the Spatio-temporal Distribution of Desertification Disaster along the China-Mongolia railway (Mongolia section) in 2000 and 2015, which mainly record the degree of desertification, and spatiotemporal distribution information. They were collected and organized by the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This dataset was composed of 6 vector files and 4 grid files. It can be used in the study of desertification. And it can provide important basis for monitoring and prevention of desertification disaster.