An accurate estimation of grassland production can provide scientific basis for informed decision-making on regional resource exploitation and socio-economic sustainable development. The dateset of grassland production in the Three-River Source Region contains information on the temporal and spatial changes of grassland production in the region from 2006 to 2015. The data sources of this dataset are measurement data, remote sensing data and auxiliary data. This dataset use MOD13Q1, MOD17A2, and MOD17A2H remote sensing data as data sources, the data resolution is 500m. With the ArcGIS software platform, data preprocessing such as projection conversion, boundary cutting was performed. The grassland production in the Three-River Source Region was estimated by statistical modeling and optimal model selection.